One of the first advanced recycling technologies, composting, that has undergone numerous is based on natural biodegradation. For this reason, composting is used for processing waste with organic origin. Today, certain composting technologies are available for food waste and undivided flow of solid waste.
Composting process can be centralized and carried out at special sites, representing a processing plants for organic debris. The end products of this process are composts that can be found at a variety of applications in agriculture.
Thermal waste processing
Because household waste contains a high percentage of organic thermal methods are oftentimes used for its recycling. Thermal processing of waste is a set of processes aimed at waste heat exposure required to reduce their size and weight, neutralization, and receiving energy and inert materials (with recycling).
The important advantages of modern methods of thermal processing are:
- extremely effective disposal of waste (total destruction of pathogenic microorganisms).
- reduction of waste in volume up to 10 times.
- the use of the energy potential.
From all the varieties, which can boast considerable efficiency of solid waste processing, incineration is the main common one. The main advantages of incineration are:
- the high level of reliability
- mass-produced equipment
- extended warranty period
- unsurpassed automation.
The main trend in the development of incineration is the transition from direct combustion of waste to the optimized combustion to fuel fraction and a smooth transition from burning as the liquidation process to burning debris as a process that allows to obtain additional electrical and thermal energy. And the most promising application of plasma technology today is ensuring a temperature higher than the melting point of the slag, which makes it possible to obtain at the output of vitrified product is harmless and useful energy.
Plasma waste processing
Plasma processing waste essentially represents nothing but a waste gasification process. Technological scheme of the method involves obtaining a biological component of waste gas in order to use it to produce steam and electricity. A part of the plasma processing are solids in the form non-pyrolised residues or slag. That is, doubtlessly, one of the most perspective directions, dynamically developed due to both governmental and commercial interest. Perhaps, the main stumbling is cost-efficiency, but such companies as Simdean, focusing on industrial waste disposal, plasma waste disposal and research works (thus, e.g. Simdean has recently revealed the patented technology that significantly cuts down operational expenses).
A clear advantage of high-temperature pyrolysis is that this method enables environmentally friendly and relatively easy process for destroying a variety of household waste without the need for pretreatment, i.e. drying, grading, etc. And of course, the use of this technique today becomes potentially more profitable from an economic point of view. Besides, using this technology resulting output slag product is perfectly safe and can be used for a variety of purposes. Thus, e.g. Simdean promises almost to zero emissions and 100% elimination of harmful substances, which is priceless for pharmaceutical and oil industries in particular.