UK Intellectual Property. Limitations of exclusive rights

The article is kindly prepared in cooperation with UMIP experts, the branch of Manchester University that specialises in intellectual property consulting and assistance. Find out what experts say on the real state of affairs of exclusive rights limitations.

Using it legally

One of the cases of authorised use of copyrighted works, in addition to obtaining a license, is established by the legislation limits for exclusive rights when the use of intellectual property is permitted under certain conditions without the consent of copyright holders.

The authors note with regret that the emergence of new or changing old ways of using works never leads to the corresponding transformations of copyright law. As a result, the scope of action allowed for protected works is too narrow, and in some cases limiting the use of new digital technologies and innovations and infringing the public interest (especially in such areas as training and research).

An even more serious problem arises when people in their everyday life use content in ways that, in their view, can not in principle be prohibited: sharing their favorite music files with the family or store music on other devices to listen to it in the car. There is an unjustified discrepancy between people’s needs and norms of the law. At the same time they cannot explain why they are free to read your favorite book to a friend, but can not do the same with regard to digital books, or music. This undermines respect for the law.

In the European Union there is a fairly strict system of such restrictions of exclusive rights, which includes only cases of free use of works for the purpose of criticism, daily news reports, research and archiving. In general, non-commercial purposes. (more…)

All You Should Know About Ultrasonic Cleaning

The use of ultrasound has penetrated a wealth of industrial branches and now it is widely used by zillions of facilities servicing a variety of sector. Ultrasonic cleaning in particular has formed a separate, self-sufficient industry for several good reasons. Thus, ultrasonic cleaning technology is applicable to virtually all industries for removal of coolant, lapping pastes, greases, and for servicing and repair of equipment, removal of operational pollution (AFS salt deposits, of grease, soot, carbon and etc.).

To work effectively it is enough to accommodate the product in the wash solution. To do this, it needs to create a disturbance (bubbling, rocking parts in a solution, etc.), and the most effective source to cause such perturbations is ultrasound.

The principle of ultrasonic cleaning systems is based on ultrasound cavitation phenomenon occurring in a fluid when subjected to intense ultrasonic vibrations. Mechanical vibrations are caused by ultrasonic emitter that transmits elastic waves in the washing liquid that are transformed into pulsating gas bubbles. The bubbles collapse under the influence of acoustic pressure; each bubble slammed is accompanied by a pressure pulse, a local increase in temperature, and the emergence of microjets microcurrents. This creates intense hydrodynamic effects on the treated surface and causes the removal of contaminants from it. Local thermal shocks additionally contribute to efficient cleaning of contaminated surfaces. The emergence of microcurrents and microjets facilitates the introduction and penetration of cavitating cleaning solution in the most difficult of the microcavity and channels of small section that allows you to quickly and efficiently wash contaminants from various parts of complex configuration.

The manufacturers & products

From simple single-chamber devices to complicated, fully automated lines with an ability of integration into the pipeline, the modern manufacturers offer an extensive array of devices. Hilsonic, one of the leading ultrasonic cleaner production players in the UK, offers more than 20 design options with custom features on demand as well as fully-custom solutions. And this is just a single brand.

To get a better understanding of functionality, here’s the overview of out of the box ultrasonic cleaner features:

  • Ultrasound and heater block when the device is open.
  • Protection of electric heater and radiators from ‘dry’ start-up.
  • ‘Drain – overflow’ cleaning solution device
  • Bubbling compressed air solution device.
  • Device for rinsing parts.
  • A sensor monitoring the temperature from 20 to 90°C and performing corresponding operations.
  • Timer with automatic shut-off and countdown from minutes to hours.
  • Adaptive dynamic control of ultrasonic field.
  • Net suspension parts for the customer.
  • Storage for blowing parts with compressed air.
  • Device for connecting an external pump, filter system or auxiliary tank.

Cleaning is carried out in aqueous solutions of environmentally friendly technical detergents. The parts that need cleaning do not require additional recovery after purification or decontamination. The combination of high-intensity ultrasound and environmentally friendly detergents gives new technology advantages over traditional technologies of thermal, mechanical, chemical treatment, and combinations thereof. The method boasts impressive cost-efficiency through replacing manual labor. (more…)